A Short Review of Cardiac Manifestations of COVID 19 Diseases
Author: Anil Kumar Mahapatra
The COVID-19 pandemic has created many complex challenges for cardiologists. Many patients with COVID-19 illness have underlying cardiovascular (CV) disease or develop acute cardiac injury during the illness. The presence of underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19 patients is associated with high morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 infection itself can induce myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, and venous thromboembolism. Diagnostic workup during COVID-19 infection include electrocardiography, and cardiac biomarker evaluation (troponin, CK-MB, BNP, D-Dimer) for patients with suspected cardiovascular manifestations. This review demonstrates the current understanding of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 infected patients, their pathophysiological mechanisms, and management. Non-invasive functional imaging for myocardial ischemia such as coronary computed tomography angiography, or invasive coronary angiography combined with functional evaluation is recommended as the initial strategy to diagnose CAD in symptomatic patients. Guideline directed management to be continued for co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure.
Keywords: Cardio vascular diseases, acute cardiac injury, COVID-19, myocardial ischemia, cardiac biomarker.