Survey of Aedes Mosquito Breeding Sites, Density and Pattern of Distribution: An Approach to Manage Dengue Outbreaks in Bhawanipatna Town, Odisha, India.
Author (s): Subrat Kumar Panigrahi
Kalahandi University, Manikya Vihar, Bhawanipatna 766001, Odisha, India
According to the surveillance data, the state Odisha now contributes nearly 10–15% of total dengue cases of the country although the population of Odisha forms 3.47 percent of India as per the 2011 census. In the present study, the newly evolved educational hub of western Odisha town, Bhawanipatna Municipal Corporation, located around the Kalahandi university campus was chosen for field collections of adults and larvae. Adults of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were collected from different areas covering the entire areas of the town, both outdoors and indoors monthly for periods of one year from January 2019 to December 2019. Larval collections were made from indoor and outdoor water containers every month for the entire period of study and the larvae so collected were reared in the laboratory to identify them after hatching to the adult stage. Five different types of breeding sites were surveyed from 94 fixed houses covering the entire Bhawanipatna once a month during study period. A total of 528 water containers were examined during the entire period of study. Out of the total number of breeding sites examined from indoors, 224 containers contained larvae of Aedes mosquitoes. The Breeding Preference Ratio (BPR) was calculated from the data as maximum in an earthen pot (0.96) followed by the plastic container (0.94). It was minimum in a plastic bucket (0.23). From outdoor survey a total of 1191 breeding sites were screened for the presence of Aedes larvae and 523 of them were positive for larvae of this genus. The BPR was calculated and was found to be maximum in a plastic container (1.33) followed by an earthen pot (0.98). No Aedes larvae could be collected from metal drums and plants axils. The house index (HI %) was maximum (50.58%) in July and was followed by 48.78% in June. The house index was minimum in November, which was 18.75%. Similarly, the container index (CI%) was maximum (54.35%) in July, and which was minimum (8.5%) in April. The Breteau index (BI %) was maximum (249.41%) in July, and it was followed by 227.77% in August. The BI was minimum (18.08%) in April. The different larval indices and the number of adults (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were collected from indoor (ID) and outdoor (OD) at Bhawanipatna. The Pearson’s correlation was made between HI% with total Aedes adult mosquito’s data (MHD), the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) value was 0.6, and the strength of the relationship between HI% and abundance of adult Aedes mosquito was moderate. The r-value of CI% and MHD were 0.3; here the strength of the relationship was low. Again, the r-value of BI% and MHD were 0.5, so the relationship between BI% and abundance of adult Aedes mosquitoes was moderate. The present study is the first in Bhawanipatna to explore the potential high risk dengue transmission.
Keywords: Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Container, Breeding.